The Fourier Series is a mathematical technique used to represent periodic functions as an infinite sum of trigonometric functions, specifically sine and cosine functions. Developed by Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier, this method is widely used in various fields, including engineering, physics, and applied mathematics.
Fourier series are particularly useful in analyzing periodic signals, such as sound waves or electrical signals. By breaking down a complex periodic function into a series of simpler trigonometric functions, the Fourier series simplifies the analysis and processing of the signal. The Fourier series also serves as the foundation for the Fourier Transform, a more general method for analyzing non-periodic functions and signals.